Observational Tests of the Processes of Nucleosynthesis in the Universe

Start year
2004
Organizational Unit
Description

Several spectroscopic analyses of stars with planets have recently been carried out. One of the most remarkable results is that planet-harbouring stars are on average more metal-rich than solar-type disc stars. Two main explanations have been suggested to link this metallicity excess with the presence of planets. The first of these, the “self-enrichement” hypothesis, attributes the origin of the observed overabundance of metals to the accretion of large amounts of metal-rich H- and He-depleted rocky planetesimal materials on to the star. The opposite view, the “primordial” hypothesis, considers the metallicity enhancement to be caused by the high metal content of the protoplanetary cloud from which the planetary system formed. Light elements may give fundamental information about the mixing, diffusion and angular momentum history of exoplanets hosts, as well as stellar activity caused by interaction with. Studies of Be, Li and the isotopic could give evidences to distinguish between different planet formation theories. Evidences of pollution have been found in HD82943 by Israelian et al.(2001, Nature, 411, 163; 2003, A&A, 405, 753).

The “self-enrichement” scenario should lead to a relative overabundance of refractories, such as Si, Mg, Ca, Ti and the iron-group elements, compared to volatiles, such as CNO, S and Zn. Differents spectroscopic studies of Fe (Santos et al. 2001, A&A, 373, 1019; 2003, A&A, 398, 363; 2004, A&A, 415, 1153) and other elements (Bodaghee et al 2003, A&A, 404, 715; Ecuvillon, Israelian, Santos et al. 2004, A&A, 418, 703; 2004, A&A, 426, 619) have been completed.

The spectroscopic analisis of metal rich stars can also give us a valuable information about yields of chemical elements produced by supernovae during the last 10 Gyr. An alternative method to investigate products of supernova explosions is by studying secondary stars in Low Mass X-ray binary systems (LMXB). The secondary stars in LMXBs have survived the supernova explosions and could have captured a part of the matter ejected during the explosion. This material can be mixed in the convection zone in a way that the final surface abundanced will be altered. Thus, a study of abundance anomalies in the atmospheres of these stars can provide us an information about nucleosynthesis and evolution of massive stars and also about supernova explosions. This new idea was applied for the first time by Israelian et al. (1999, Nature 401, 142) in the spectroscopic study of GRO J1655-40 (Nova Scorpii 1994), a LMXB with a black hole which has the most reliable mass determination. The analysis has shown that the abundances of O, Mg, Si and S are from 6 to 10 times larger compared with the Sun. These results were considered as the evidence that a supernova explosion took place and created the black hole in the system where the low mass secondary star could not produce these elements

  1. The planet-metallicity correlation is reviewed showing that the metallicity distribution of stars hosting low-mass planets (below 30 M) is indistinguishable from that from the solar neighborhood sample in terms of metallicity distribution.
  2. We found that 3D 6Li/7Li corrections are always negative, showing that 1D LTE analysis can significantly overestimate the presence of 6Li (up to 4.9% points) in the atmospheres of solar-like dwarf stars. Although 3D NLTE spectral synthesis implies an extensive computational effort, the results can be made accessible with parametric tools like the ones presented by us
  3. We have analyzed the behaviour of chemical abundances of Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, and Eu in the large and homogeneous HARPS-GTO planet search sample.We compared the [X/Fe] ratios of such elements in different metallicity bins and we find that planet hosts present higher abundances of Zn for [Fe/H] < -0.1 dex.
  4. We found that 100% of planetary sample in HARPS-GTO present C/O < 0.8. 86% of stars with high-mass companions present 0.8 > C/O > 0.4, while 14% present C/O values lower than 0.4. Regarding Mg/Si, all stars with low-mass planetary companion showed values between one and two, while 85% of the high-mass companion sample does.

Publications related

  • Chemical Abundances of the Secondary Star in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni

    We present a chemical abundance analysis of the secondary star in the black hole binary V404 Cygni, using Keck I/High Resolution Spectrometer. We adopt a χ2-minimization procedure to derive the stellar parameters, taking into account any possible veiling from the accretion disk. With these parameters we determine the atmospheric abundances of O, Na

    González-Hernández, J. I. et al.

    Advertised on:

    9
    2011
  • Low Mg/Si Planetary Host Stars and Their Mg-depleted Terrestrial Planets

    Simulations have shown that a diverse range of extrasolar terrestrial planet bulk compositions are likely to exist based on the observed variations in host star elemental abundances. Based on recent studies, it is expected that a significant proportion of host stars may have Mg/Si ratios below 1. Here we examine this previously neglected group of

    Carter-Bond, Jade C. et al.

    Advertised on:

    3
    2012
  • Chemical Clues on the Formation of Planetary Systems: C/O Versus Mg/Si for HARPS GTO Sample

    Theoretical studies suggest that C/O and Mg/Si are the most important elemental ratios in determining the mineralogy of terrestrial planets. The C/O ratio controls the distribution of Si among carbide and oxide species, while Mg/Si gives information about the silicate mineralogy. We present a detailed and uniform study of C, O, Mg, and Si

    Delgado-Mena, E. et al.

    Advertised on:

    12
    2010

Talks related

No related talks were found.

Conferences related

No related conferences were found.