ARES (High Spectral Resolution) is a coordinated project which attempt to join and consolidate the efforts on instrument developments at high spectral resolution within the IAC. The goal is to launch the scientific programs that the IAC carries out on the search and characterization of exoplanets, in particular Earth-like exoplanets, on the evolution of the stellar populations of our Galaxy and on the field of cosmology and fundamental physics using high-resolution ultra-stable spectroscopy. ARES incorporates specific actions of great impact in the design and development of instrumentation of new generation for astronomical telescope facilities in the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos, and the observatorio de Calar Alto: ESPRESSO@8.2m-VLT, HORS@10.4m-GTC, HARPS3@2.5m-INT, NIRPS@3.6m-ESO, HIRES@39m-E-ELT, CARMENES@3.5m-CalarAlto, and HRS@10.4m-GTC. The project ARES will allow to carry out technical actions and will provide access to the guaranteed scientific exploitation in : (a) ESPRESSO: will, among other scientific cases, allow the detection and characterization of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around nearby GKM stars of the Southern hemisphere. The integration phase of the instrument is being carried out and the first light at the telescope is scheduled for 2017. (b) HORS: will characterize the chemistry of the stars of the Milky Way. Several improvements are being performed in several optical components with the aim of carrying out more observing tests at the GTC during 2017. (c) NIRPS: will be particularly efficient in the detection and characterization of low-mass planets orbiting M-dwarf stars in the southern hemisphere. The IAC is developing the design of fiber link. (d) HARPS3: will focus on star-planet systems similar to the Sun-Earth system. The IAC is carrying out the design of the rooms of thermal insulation of the spectrograph. (e) HIRES: will study, among other scientific cases, the atmospheres of exoplanets from Neptunes to Earths, including those in habitable zone, with the aim of detecting signs of life on rocky planets. The IAC is participating in the phase A of the design of the visible arm of this spectrograph and the fiber link of the instrument. (f) CARMENES: will search for low-mass planets orbiting M dwarfs in the northern hemisphere, with the aim of finding Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. (g) HRS: to follow the development of the high-resolution spectrograph and high-stability for the GTC telescope envisaged for the coming years.
Members of the project
Highlights and results
-The participation of the IAC in the consortium for the design and development of the ultra-stable spectrograph ESPRESSO (Pepe et al. 2014, AN, 335, 8) has been been successful. During the first part of 2017 the process of preliminar acceptance in Europe (PAE) of the instrument by the European southern observatory (ESO) will be executed and the instrument will be shifted to Chile for the instalation, first light and first observing tests at the Coudé lab of the 8.2m-VLT telescopes at Paranal Observatory (ESO, Chile). -We continue participating in the development of the laser frequency comb (LFC) where we have demonstrated the short-term repeatability of 2.5 cm/s (Wilken et al. 2012, Nature, 485, 611), reaching approximately 1 cm/s in the more recent calibration tests (Probst et al. 2016, SPIE, 9908, 64).
The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars
The CARMENES radial velocity (RV) survey is observing 324 M dwarfs to search for any orbiting planets. In this paper, we present the survey sample by publishing one CARMENES spectrum for each M dwarf. These spectra cover the wavelength range 520-1710 nm at a resolution of at least R >80 000, and we measure its RV, Hα emission, and projectedReiners, A. et al.
A candidate super-Earth planet orbiting near the snow line of Barnard's star
Barnard's star is a red dwarf, and has the largest proper motion (apparent motion across the sky) of all known stars. At a distance of 1.8 parsecs1, it is the closest single star to the Sun; only the three stars in the α Centauri system are closer. Barnard's star is also among the least magnetically active red dwarfs known2,3 and has an estimatedRibas, I. et al.
Calibrating the metallicity of M dwarfs in wide physical binaries with F-, G-, and K-primaries - I: High-resolution spectroscopy with HERMES: stellar parameters, abundances, and kinematics
We investigated almost 500 stars distributed among 193 binary or multiple systems made of late-F, G-, or early-K-primaries and late-K- or M-dwarf companion candidates. For all of them, we compiled or measured coordinates, J-band magnitudes, spectral types, distances, and proper motions. With these data, we established a sample of 192 physicallyMontes, D. et al.
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NIRPS is a next-generation, near-infrared spectrograph that uses adaptive optics and is fed via a fiber link. It is a compact cryogenic Echelle spectrograph, capable of operating alone or in combination with the HARPS instrument. It will have a spectral resolution of 100000 or 75000, and will be installed in La Silla observatory (Chile).
HIRES (the High Resolution Spectrograph) is an instrument under study for ESO’s forthcoming Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). The contract to begin design studies for HIRES was signed in 2016 by ESO. IAC is one of the more than 30 institutions in the HIRES consortium.
ESPRESSO is a fiber-fed, cross-dispersed, high resolution, Echelle spectrograph which can be operated with one or up to 4 Unit Telescopes (UTs) of ESO’s VLT.
HARPS3 (High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher) is a new version of the succesful HARPS instrument. HARPS3 is an Echelle spectrograph with high resolution (R ̴ 115000) and a wavelength range of 380-690 nm. It will be installed in the Isaac Newton Telescope (upgraded and robotized) at the ORM.