Dynamical Architectures of S-type Transiting Planets in Binaries. I. Target Selection Using Hipparcos and Gaia Proper Motion Anomalies

Zhang, Jingwen; Weiss, Lauren M.; Huber, Daniel; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Brandt, Timothy D.; Collins, Karen; Conti, Dennis M.; Isaacson, Howard; Lewin, Pablo; Marino, Giuseppe; Massey, Bob; Murgas, Felipe; Palle, Enric; Radford, Don J.; Relles, Howard M.; Srdoc, Gregor; Stockdale, Chris; Tan, Thiam-Guan; Wang, Gavin
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The Astronomical Journal

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The effect of stellar multiplicity on planetary architecture and orbital dynamics provides an important context for exoplanet demographics. We present a volume-limited catalog of up to 300 pc of 66 stars hosting planets and planet candidates from Kepler, K2, and TESS with significant Hipparcos-Gaia proper motion anomalies, which indicates the presence of companions. We assess the reliability of each transiting planet candidate using ground-based follow-up observations, and find that the TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs) with significant proper anomalies show nearly four times more false positives due to eclipsing binaries compared to TOIs with marginal proper anomalies. In addition, we find tentative evidence that orbital periods of planets orbiting TOIs with significant proper anomalies are shorter than those orbiting TOIs without significant proper anomalies, consistent with the scenario that stellar companions can truncate planet-forming disks. Furthermore, TOIs with significant proper anomalies exhibit lower Gaia differential velocities in comparison to field stars with significant proper anomalies, suggesting that planets are more likely to form in binary systems with low-mass substellar companions or stellar companions at wider separation. Finally, we characterize the three-dimensional architecture of LTT 1445 ABC using radial velocities, absolute astrometry from Gaia and Hipparcos, and relative astrometry from imaging. Our analysis reveals that LTT 1445 is a nearly flat system, with a mutual inclination of ∼2.°88 between the orbit of BC around A and that of C around B. This coplanarity may explain why multiple planets around LTT 1445 A survive in the dynamically hostile environments of this system. * Also referred to as Hipparcos and Gaia astrometric accelerations.