Atmospheric extinction evaluates the sky transparency. Besides the natural extinction due to the molecules of the atmosphere, other sources of sky transparency degradation are clouds and aerosols.
Sky quality parameters
CN2 turbulent vertical distribution
The optical turbulence is caused by the fluctuations in the index of refraction of the air. The refractive-index structure constant of the turbulence, Cn2, is a measure of the turbulence strength
Meteorology and climate
Wind speed and direction, wind gust, relative humidity, air temperature, rainfall, insolation, etc.
Night Sky Background
The sky brightness (SB) is the routine measurement of the night sky brightness in a moonless night. It is a sky quality parameter that allows for identifying possible contaminating sources like
Precipitable Water Vapour
The principal molecule responsible for the absorption in IR is water vapour (WV). The total amount of WV above a particular location is highly variable and commonly expressed as the Precipitable Water
Seeing and coherence time
Astronomical seeing (units arcesec) refers to the blurring or instantaneous image broadening of astronomical objects caused by turbulent mixing in the Earth's atmosphere due to the variations of the