Low- to intermediate-mass (M < 8 solar masses, Ms) stars represent the majority of stars in the Cosmos. They finish their lives on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) - just before they form planetary nebulae (PNe) - where they experience complex nucleosynthetic and molecular processes. AGB stars are important contributors to the enrichment of the interstellar medium where new stars/planets are born (including our own Early Solar System, ESS), and to the chemical evolution of stellar systems like globular clusters (GCs) and galaxies. In particular, the more massive (M > 4-5 Ms) AGB stars synthesize very different (radio)isotopes from those formed by lower mass AGB stars and Supernova detonations, as a consequence of different nucleosynthesis mechanisms. Evolved stars in the transition phase between AGB stars and PNe also form diverse organic compounds like PAHs, and fullerene and graphene molecular nanostructures, being a wonderful laboratory for Astrochemistry. On-going massive surveys like SDSS-IV/APOGEE-2 and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) represent a fundamental step forward to understand the nucleosynthesis and molecular processes in evolved stars. We aim to explore the nucleosynthesis of light and heavy (radio)isotopes in AGB stars and how they contribute to the ESS radioactive inventory as well as to the formation and evolution of GCs and galaxies. We also aim at understanding the top-down formation process of fullerene and graphene molecular nanostructures in evolved stars. Finally, it is intended to perform data mining with the Gaia satellite, in order to study the AGB- PNe evolutionary phase. In addition we aim to use the GALEX database to discover binary central stars in Galactic PNe.
1. During 2020, we have published 37 papers in high-impact international refereed astronomical journals (including one invited review) and 2 papers in the Chemistry -Physics journal FNCN.
2. Phosphorus-rich stars with an extremely peculiar chemical abundance pattern have been discovered for the first time, challenging the theoretical nucleosynthesis predictions.
3. It was demonstrated that the P-rich star progenitors represent a new site for s-process nucleosynthesis, with important implications for the chemical evolution of our Galaxy.
Hydrogenation of [Li@C60]PF6: A comparison with fulleranes derived from C60García-Hernández, D. Aníbal et al.
HD 20329b: An ultra-short-period planet around a solar-type star found by TESS
Context. Ultra-short-period (USP) planets are defined as planets with orbital periods shorter than one day. This type of planets is rare, highly irradiated, and interesting because their formation history is unknown. Aims: We aim to obtain precise mass and radius measurements to confirm the planetary nature of a USP candidate found by theLivingston, J. et al.
The messy death of a multiple star system and the resulting planetary nebula as observed by JWST
Planetary nebulae—the ejected envelopes of red giant stars—provide us with a history of the last, mass-losing phases of 90% of stars initially more massive than the Sun. Here we analyse images of the planetary nebula NGC 3132 from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Observations. A structured, extended hydrogen halo surrounding anDe Marco, Orsola et al.
The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey: Motivation, implementation, GIRAFFE data processing, analysis, and final data products
Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is an ambitious project designed to obtain astrophysical parameters and elemental abundances for 100 000 stars, including large representative samples of the stellar populations in the Galaxy, and a well-defined sample of 60 (plus 20 archive) open clusters. We provide internally consistent resultsGilmore, G. et al.
The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey: Implementation, data products, open cluster survey, science, and legacy,★
Context. In the last 15 years different ground-based spectroscopic surveys have been started (and completed) with the general aim of delivering stellar parameters and elemental abundances for large samples of Galactic stars, complementing Gaia astrometry. Among those surveys, the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, the only one performed on a 8mRandich, S. et al.
Estimating the atmospheric properties of 44 M dwarfs from SPIRou spectra
We describe advances on a method designed to derive accurate parameters of M dwarfs. Our analysis consists in comparing high-resolution infrared spectra acquired with the near-infrared spectro-polarimeter SPIRou to synthetic spectra computed from MARCS model atmospheres, in order to derive the effective temperature (Teff), surface gravity (log g)Cristofari, P. I. et al.
BACCHUS Analysis of Weak Lines in APOGEE Spectra (BAWLAS)
Elements with weak and blended spectral features in stellar spectra are challenging to measure and require specialized analysis methods to precisely measure their chemical abundances. In this work, we have created a catalog of approximately 120,000 giants with high signal-to-noise Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) DataHayes, Christian R. et al.
The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping Survey. VI. Galactic Chemical Gradient Analysis from APOGEE DR17
The goal of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping (OCCAM) survey is to constrain key Galactic dynamic and chemical evolution parameters by the construction and analysis of a large, comprehensive, uniform data set of infrared spectra for stars in hundreds of open clusters. This sixth contribution from the OCCAM survey presents analysis ofMyers, Natalie et al.
Asphaltenes as model compounds of the UIBs/AIBs detected in various astrophysical objects. Part 3: Petroleum asphaltenes high energy radiation processedGarcía-Hernández, Domingo Aníbal et al.
Asphaltenes as model compounds of the UIBs/AIBs detected in various astrophysical objects. Part 2 – Natural bitumens asphaltenes carbonizationCataldo, Franco et al.
Chemical Cartography with APOGEE: Mapping Disk Populations with a 2-process Model and Residual Abundances
We apply a novel statistical analysis to measurements of 16 elemental abundances in 34,410 Milky Way disk stars from the final data release (DR17) of APOGEE-2. Building on recent work, we fit median abundance ratio trends [X/Mg] versus [Mg/H] with a 2-process model, which decomposes abundance patterns into a "prompt" component tracing core-collapseWeinberg, David H. et al.
Asphaltenes as model compounds of the UIBs/AIBs detected in various astrophysical objects. Part 1 – Petroleum asphaltenes carbonizationCataldo, Franco et al.
Is Terzan 5 the remnant of a building block of the Galactic bulge? Evidence from APOGEE
It has been proposed that the globular cluster-like system Terzan 5 is the surviving remnant of a primordial building block of the Milky Way bulge, mainly due to the age/metallicity spread and the distribution of its stars in the α-Fe plane. We employ Sloan Digital Sky Survey data from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment toTaylor, Dominic J. et al.
The TESS-Keck Survey. XI. Mass Measurements for Four Transiting Sub-Neptunes Orbiting K Dwarf TOI-1246
Multiplanet systems are valuable arenas for investigating exoplanet architectures and comparing planetary siblings. TOI-1246 is one such system, with a moderately bright K dwarf (V = 11.6, K = 9.9) and four transiting sub-Neptunes identified by TESS with orbital periods of 4.31, 5.90, 18.66, and 37.92 days. We collected 130 radial velocityTurtelboom, Emma V. et al.
Estimation of Nitrogen-to-Iron Abundance Ratios from Low-Resolution Spectra
We present a method to determine nitrogen abundance ratios with respect to iron ([N/Fe]) from molecular CN-band features observed in low-resolution (R ∼ 2000) stellar spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). Various tests are carried out to check theKim, Changmin et al.
The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances and Mapping Survey. VII. APOGEE DR17 [C/N]-Age Calibration
Large-scale surveys open the possibility to investigate Galactic evolution both chemically and kinematically; however, reliable stellar ages remain a major challenge. Detailed chemical information provided by high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stars in clusters can be used as a means to calibrate recently developed chemical tools for ageSpoo, Taylor et al.
Carbon Abundances in Compact Galactic Planetary Nebulae: An Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Study with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)
We surveyed a sample of compact Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to determine their gas-phase carbon abundances. Carbon abundances in PNe constrain the nature of their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitors, as well as cosmic recycling. We measured the carbonStanghellini, Letizia et al.
Survey of Surveys. I. The largest compilation of radial velocities for the Galaxy
Context. In the present-day panorama of large spectroscopic surveys, the amount, diversity, and complexity of the available data continuously increase. The overarching goal of studying the formation and evolution of our Galaxy is hampered by the heterogeneity of instruments, selection functions, analysis methods, and measured quantities. Aims: WeTsantaki, M. et al.
The Seventeenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys: Complete Release of MaNGA, MaStar, and APOGEE-2 Data
This paper documents the seventeenth data release (DR17) from the Sloan Digital Sky Surveys; the fifth and final release from the fourth phase (SDSS-IV). DR17 contains the complete release of the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, which reached its goal of surveying over 10,000 nearby galaxies. The complete releaseAbdurro'uf et al.
Quantifying radial migration in the Milky Way: inefficient over short time-scales but essential to the very outer disc beyond 15 kpc
Stellar radial migration plays an important role in reshaping a galaxy's structure and the radial distribution of stellar population properties. In this work, we revisit reported observational evidence for radial migration and quantify its strength using the age-[Fe/H] distribution of stars across the Milky Way with APOGEE data. We find a brokenLian, Jianhui et al.