Constraints on the cosmic equation of state: Age conflict versus phantom energy. Age-redshift relations in an accelerated universe

Cepa, J.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.422, p.831-839 (2004)

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The currently available values and confidence limits for Ωm0, H0 and globular cluster ages still indicate that the dark energy that dominates the Universe could also be a form of quintessence or phantom energy. In fact, current cosmological values favor phantom energy. To increase the likelihood of a cosmological constant as dark energy instead of phantom energy, the possibilities seem to lie in reducing globular cluster ages, the Hubble constant, or both, and possibly advancing the epoch of globular cluster formation. For a set of possible dark energy equations of state that includes the cosmological constant, quintessence or phantom energy, age-redshift analytical expressions for null curvature universes that include ordinary matter are derived together with the corresponding ages for these universes. ``Cosmic coincidences'' are found for the currently accepted values of Ωm0 when evaluating the age of the Universe with a cosmological constant or a phantom energy as dark energies.