Identification of Superclusters and Their Properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Using the WHL Cluster Catalog

Sankhyayan, Shishir; Bagchi, Joydeep; Tempel, Elmo; More, Surhud; Einasto, Maret; Dabhade, Pratik; Raychaudhury, Somak; Athreya, Ramana; Heinämäki, Pekka
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The Astrophysical Journal

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Superclusters are the largest massive structures in the cosmic web, on tens to hundreds of megaparsec scales. They are the largest assembly of galaxy clusters in the Universe. Apart from a few detailed studies of such structures, their evolutionary mechanism is still an open question. In order to address and answer the relevant questions, a statistically significant, large catalog of superclusters covering a wide range of redshifts and sky areas is essential. Here, we present a large catalog of 662 superclusters identified using a modified friends-of-friends algorithm applied on the WHL (Wen-Han-Liu) cluster catalog within a redshift range of 0.05 ≤ z ≤ 0.42. We name the most massive supercluster at z ~ 0.25 as the Einasto Supercluster. We find that the median mass of superclusters is ~5.8 × 1015 M ⊙ and the median size ~65 Mpc. We find that the supercluster environment slightly affects the growth of clusters. We compare the properties of the observed superclusters with the mock superclusters extracted from the Horizon Run 4 cosmological simulation. The properties of the superclusters in the mocks and observations are in broad agreement. We find that the density contrast of a supercluster is correlated with its maximum extent with a power-law index, α ~ -2. The phase-space distribution of mock superclusters shows that, on average, ~90% of part of a supercluster has a gravitational influence on its constituents. We also show the mock halos' average number density and peculiar velocity profiles in and around the superclusters.
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