Superclustering with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and Dark Energy Survey. I. Evidence for Thermal Energy Anisotropy Using Oriented Stacking

Lokken, M.; Hložek, R.; Engelen, A. van; Madhavacheril, M.; Baxter, E.; DeRose, J.; Doux, C.; Pandey, S.; Rykoff, E. S.; Stein, G.; To, C.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Adhikari, S.; Aguena, M.; Allam, S.; Andrade-Oliveira, F.; Annis, J.; Battaglia, N.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Bond, J. R.; Brooks, D.; Calabrese, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cawthon, R.; Choi, A.; Costanzi, M.; Crocce, M.; Costa, L. N. da; Pereira, M. E. da Silva; Vicente, J. De; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Dunkley, J.; Everett, S.; Evrard, A. E.; Ferraro, S.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gallardo, P. A.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Hill, J. C.; Hilton, M.; Hincks, A. D.; Hinton, S. R.; Hollowood, D. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hoyle, B.; Huang, Z.; Hughes, J. P.; Huterer, D.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Kuehn, K.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; McMahon, J.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Moodley, K.; Morgan, R.; Nati, F.; Page, L.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Palmese, A.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Malagón, A. A. Plazas; Pieres, A.; Romer, A. K.; Rozo, E.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schillaci, A.; Schubnell, M.; Serrano, S.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Shin, T.; Sifón, C.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D. et al.
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The Astrophysical Journal

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The cosmic web contains filamentary structure on a wide range of scales. On the largest scales, superclustering aligns multiple galaxy clusters along intercluster bridges, visible through their thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal in the cosmic microwave background. We demonstrate a new, flexible method to analyze the hot gas signal from multiscale extended structures. We use a Compton y-map from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) stacked on redMaPPer cluster positions from the optical Dark Energy Survey (DES). Cutout images from the y-map are oriented with large-scale structure information from DES galaxy data such that the superclustering signal is aligned before being overlaid. We find evidence of an extended quadrupole moment of the stacked y signal at the 3.5σ level, demonstrating that the large-scale thermal energy surrounding galaxy clusters is anisotropically distributed. We compare our ACT × DES results with the Buzzard simulations, finding broad agreement. Using simulations, we highlight the promise of this novel technique for constraining the evolution of anisotropic, non-Gaussian structure using future combinations of microwave and optical surveys.