Two-dimensional Eclipse Mapping of the Hot-Jupiter WASP-43b with JWST MIRI/LRS

Hammond, Mark; Bell, Taylor J.; Challener, Ryan C.; Lewis, Neil T.; Weiner Mansfield, Megan; Malsky, Isaac; Rauscher, Emily; Bean, Jacob L.; Carone, Ludmila; Mendonça, João M.; Teinturier, Lucas; Tan, Xianyu; Crouzet, Nicolas; Kreidberg, Laura; Morello, Giuseppe; Parmentier, Vivien; Blecic, Jasmina; Désert, Jean-Michel; Helling, Christiane; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Molaverdikhani, Karan; Nixon, Matthew C.; Rackham, Benjamin V.; Yang, Jingxuan
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The Astronomical Journal

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We present eclipse maps of the two-dimensional thermal emission from the dayside of the hot-Jupiter WASP-43b, derived from an observation of a phase curve with the JWST MIRI/LRS instrument. The observed eclipse shapes deviate significantly from those expected for a planet emitting uniformly over its surface. We fit a map to this deviation, constructed from spherical harmonics up to order , alongside the planetary, orbital, stellar, and systematic parameters. This yields a map with a meridionally averaged eastward hot-spot shift of (7.75 ± 0.36)°, with no significant degeneracy between the map and the additional parameters. We show the latitudinal and longitudinal contributions of the dayside emission structure to the eclipse shape, finding a latitudinal signal of ∼200 ppm and a longitudinal signal of ∼250 ppm. To investigate the sensitivity of the map to the method, we fix the parameters not used for mapping and derive an "eigenmap" fitted with an optimized number of orthogonal phase curves, which yields a similar map to the map. We also fit a map up to , which shows a smaller hot-spot shift, with a larger uncertainty. These maps are similar to those produced by atmospheric simulations. We conclude that there is a significant mapping signal which constrains the spherical harmonic components of our model up to . Alternative mapping models may derive different structures with smaller-scale features; we suggest that further observations of WASP-43b and other planets will drive the development of more robust methods and more accurate maps.